Total 0,00 €
There is no unified international regulation of nanoproducts or the underlying nanotechnology yet. Nor are there any internationally agreed definitions or terminology for nanotechnology, no internationally agreed protocols for toxicity testing of nanoparticles, and no standardized protocols for evaluating the environmental impacts of nanoparticles.
Since products that are produced using nanotechnologies will likely enter international trade, it is argued that it will be necessary to harmonize nanotechnology standards across national borders. There is concern that some countries, most notably developing countries, will be excluded from international standards negotiations.
Peer-reviewed studies have indicated that the toxicity of nanoparticles needs to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis, but results of studies in animals and humans have indicated areas of concern.
The effects seen depend on the base material of the nanoparticle, its size and structure, and its constituents and coatings. Additional toxicology testing is under development worldwide.
The reports to date have indicated:
Additional safety and health concerns include known and unknown effects of:
Exposure to nanomaterials can be controlled using the same precautions currently used to handle toxic materials:
Working safely with nanomaterials involves following standard procedures that should be followed for any particulate material with known or uncertain toxicity:
preventing inhalation, skin contact, and ingestion.
Use exhaust ventilation (such as fume hoods and vented enclosures) to prevent inhalation exposure during procedures.
Since the ability of nanoparticles to penetrate the skin is uncertain at this point, gloves should be worn when handling particulates and solutions containing particles. A glove having good chemical resistance to any solution the particles are suspended in should be used. If working with dry particulate, a sturdy glove with good integrity should be used.
One very important potential safety concern with nanoparticles is fires and explosions if large quantities of dust are generated during reactions or production. This is expected to become more of a concern when reactions are scaled up to pilot plant or production levels. Both carbonaceous and metal dusts can burn and explode if an oxidant such as air and an ignition source are present. Nanodusts can be anticipated to have a greater potential for explosivity than larger particles.
Good work practices will help minimize exposure to nanomaterials: These work practices are consistent with general good laboratory practice.
There are not specific guidelines for disposal of waste nanomaterials. Currently the disposal requirements for bulk materials should be followed.
More links concerning safety: